Weight loss surgery, also known as bariatric surgery, is a medical procedure designed to help individuals who are severely overweight or obese lose weight and improve their health. These surgical procedures alter the digestive system to restrict food intake, reduce nutrient absorption, or both, resulting in significant and sustained weight loss. Weight loss surgery is typically considered for individuals who have not achieved successful weight loss through diet, exercise, and other lifestyle changes, and who have obesity-related health conditions that pose serious risks to their health and well-being. The most common obesity related health conditions, so called co-morbidities, are: Diabetes type 2, Hypertension, Sleep apnea, PCOS, joint and back pain and diseases and other.

There are several types of weight loss surgery, each with its own benefits, risks, and mechanisms of action. The most common types of weight loss surgery include:

Gastric Bypass (Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass):

  • In gastric bypass surgery, the surgeon creates a small pouch at the top of the stomach and connects it directly to the small intestine, bypassing a portion of the stomach and the first part of the small intestine (duodenum).

  • This procedure reduces the amount of food the stomach can hold and alters the way food is digested and absorbed, leading to reduced calorie intake and malabsorption of nutrients.

  • Gastric Bypass surgery is considered a 'Gold Standard' in bariatric surgery.


Sleeve Gastrectomy or Gastric Sleeve Surgery:

  • Sleeve gastrectomy involves removing a large portion of the stomach, leaving behind a smaller, sleeve-shaped pouch. The smaller stomach restricts the amount of food that can be eaten at one time, leading to reduced calorie intake and weight loss.

  • This procedure does not involve rerouting the intestines and typically does not cause malabsorption of nutrients, which is the reason why Gastric Sleeve is considered the most physiological procedure of all.

Mini Gastric Bypass or One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass Surgery:  

  • Similar to gastric bypass RNY procedure, a small pouch is created at the top of the stomach using surgical staples or a gastric band. This restricts the amount of food the stomach can hold, leading to feelings of fullness with smaller meals.

  • Unlike traditional RYGB, which involves creating a Roux limb and connecting it to the small stomach pouch, OAGB typically involves a single anastomosis (connection) between the stomach pouch and a lower portion of the small intestine.

  • The food travels from the stomach pouch directly into the lower portion of the small intestine, bypassing a portion of the small intestine where nutrient absorption occurs. This results in reduced absorption of calories and nutrients, contributing to weight loss.

There are also other types of bariatric surgery like Gastric Banding (Lap-Band) which is no longer considered a good and effective method in bariatric surgery. There is also Duodenal Switch surgery. 

NOTE!!! Weight loss surgery is not a quick fix or a one-size-fits-all solution for obesity. It requires careful evaluation, comprehensive preoperative counselling, and lifelong commitment to dietary and lifestyle changes to achieve and maintain successful outcomes. While weight loss surgery can lead to significant improvements in weight, health, and quality of life for many individuals, it also carries potential risks and complications, including surgical risks, nutritional deficiencies, and changes in digestive function. Therefore, it is essential for individuals considering weight loss surgery to undergo evaluation by healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate treatment approach based on their individual needs and circumstances.

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